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Peruvian Coat of Arms and National Emblem

Last modified: 2008-02-23 by antónio martins
Keywords: coat of arms: horn of plenty | national emblem | flag | escudo de armas | escudo nacional | doubt | parede (josé gregorio) | sun: 24 rays | vicuña | keno | chichona tree | quinine | cornucopia | cockade |
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The arms were created by José Gregorio Paredes and adopted in 1825 (Law from 1825, February 25th). The field is divided per fess and the chief divided per pale. First canton shows a vicuna, in natural colour, that represents the animal kingdom. The vicuna is the national animal of Peru. The second filed shows a quinine tree. In natural colour upon white. The quinine tree is the national tree of Peru. The third field shows a cornucopia or richness horn with gold coins inside. It represents the mineral richness of the country. Two flags and national banners are supporters. As crest a green laurel crown is used.
Jarig Bakker, 09 Jan 2002, quoting from Ralf Hartemink’s site

Regarding the two symbols, as far as I understand these were never changed since they were adopted in 1825. The differences in picturing are of no significance and are only due to the artistic interpretations.
Željko Heimer, 31 Oct 2002

The approved coat of arms included the vicuña, the keno tree and the cornucopia apportioning gold and silver coins, representing the three kingdoms: animal, vegetable and mineral. The shield had to go preceded by a laurel wreath and to each side a banner with the national colors.
Jaume Ollé, 26 Jul 1996

«Keno tree», what is it? I checked Smith [smi75b] who notes it is a cinchona tree, used to produce quinine.
Rob Raeside, 09 Jan 2002

Mucha [mch85a] confirms the cinchona tree. I think keno is a remedy against malaria (Spanish "quina"), and it of course comes from the cinchona tree.
Jarig Bakker, 09 Jan 2002

Two versions

The coat of arms with the flags flanking the shield is called in Peru the escudo nacional; the coat of arms with a wreath around it and no flags is called in Peru the escudo de armas.
Joe McMillan, 31 Oct 2002

The arms are heraldically the same, of course; only the surrounding accoutrements are different.
Joe McMillan, 05 Oct 2003

Please note that, in usual Spanish heraldic meaning, "escudo" is an abbreviation of "escudo de armas" ("escudo" meaning "shield"). "Escudo nacional" is therefore the short form of something that might be "Escudo de armas nacional", which is inconsistent with having "escudo nacional" and "escudo de armas" as distinct entities. (Cp. english "national coat of arms" and "national coat", if perchance "coat" were a suitable abbreviation of "coat of arms"). This word usage is apparently specific to this situation and not self evident to untrained Spanish-speakers.
António Martins, 01 Nov 2002

From the pictures I’ve seen, both the Peruvian Army and Navy fly the flag with the escudo de armas as the flag hoisted on flagpoles and ships, the same as civilian state agencies. Both the Army and the Navy carry a color or standard for parade purposes with the escudo nacional and the name of the unit embroidered in gold letters. This is termed the bandera de guerra. This bandera de guerra does not mean "war flag" in the FIAV sense (--W/--W). Likewise in Colombia and elsewhere.
Joe McMillan, 31 Oct 2002

Both sets of arms are correct and both were introduced in 1825 (legislation of 25 February 1825?). The shield supported by draped flags is the national coat of arms and appears certainly on the presidential flag (and probably on military flags), whilst that surrounded by a laurel and palm wreath appears on the state flag and naval ensign.
Christopher Southworth, 05 Oct 2003

Escudo de Armas / Coat of Arms

Coat of Arms
image by Željko Heimer, 05 Nov 2002, adapted from Graham’s collection

The coat of arms with a wreath around it and no flags is called in Peru the escudo de armas.
Joe McMillan, 31 Oct 2002

"Coat of Arms" is used in the Album 2000 [pay00] to name the shield with green wreath around.
Željko Heimer, 31 Oct 2002

Escudo nacional / National Emblem

National Emblem
image by Željko Heimer, 01 Nov 2002, adapted from Christian Siemer’s heraldical site

The coat of arms with the flags flanking the shield is called in Peru the escudo nacional.
Joe McMillan, 31 Oct 2002

"National Emblem" is used in the Album 2000 [pay00] to name the shield flanked with the flags.
Željko Heimer, 31 Oct 2002

Some military flags show the state coat of arms [= National Emblem], but when I queried the existence of such flags (some years ago) with the Peruvian Embassy in London, they denied that the design existed (experience has shown, however, that we as likely to be right as are embassy staff).
Christopher Southworth, 05 Oct 2003

The embassy is wrong. This escudo nacional is used on military colors, which I believe are called in Peru banderas de guerra. According to Album 2000 [pay00], it also appears on the president’s and defense minister’s flags.
Joe McMillan, 05 Oct 2003

National Cockade

National Emblem
image by Eugene Ipavec, 08 Jan 2006

Peruvian red/white cockade. Source: photo in the website of Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Peru.
Esteban Rivera, 08 Jan 2006

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